ISSN(Print): 2790-6795 | ISSN(Online) : 2790-6809 | ISSN-L : 2790-6795

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 2

Deconstruction of Patriarchal Structures and Post-Colonial Themes in Bapsi Sidhwa’s Short Story, ‘A Gentlemanly War‘

  1. Dr. Iram Rubab
  2. Seham Fayyaz Khokhar
  3. Hajira Khalid Sair
Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze one of the story ‘A Gentlemanly War’ from one of Bapsi Sidhwa’s famous collection, “The Language of Love” by using the lens of postmodern literary theory, ‘deconstruction’. Deconstructive analysis includes questioning the common meaning of the text, exposing the cultural bias, to read between the lines and to look for meaning below the surface level. The study also intends to extract implicit patriarchal structures and post-colonial themes from the story. The analysis is done by taking the methodological framework of Barbara B. Stern (1996). It involves Three-Step Textual Analysis: Identification-Construction-Deconstruction. Various post-colonial and patriarchal themes including privilege of elite class, sufferings of poor after partition, trauma of war, psycho-social behaviors of people, typical mentality of society and hidden ideologies and revelations are made in this study. It directs future researchers to deconstruct other such themes in rest of the short stories of Bapsi Sidhwa.
Keyswords: Deconstruction, Feminism, Patriarchy, Post-Colonialism
Pages: 01-10
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-II)01
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Emergence of Anti-American Sentiment in Pakistan after 9/11

  1. Dr. Asif Farooq
  2. Dr. Imran Khan
Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze the phenomenon, causes of anti-Americanism after 9/11. This is a global phenomenon which cannot be linked with any specific state. Anti-American feeling is not against the people of the US (United States of America), but it is all about the policies taken by the US. It did not emerge at once but flourish with gradual development. After the incident of 9/11, policies taken by the US administration become the reason of hostile feelings not only in Pakistan but in many other Muslim states also. Major reasons of anti-American sentiment in Pakistan include the participation of Pakistan in war on terror, dual policy of America to achieve her interests, drone attacks, close collaboration with India and her intervening steps in social, political and economic spheres. Both governments should try to understand each other point of view. The sovereignty of Pakistan must be respected and the leadership of Pakistan tries to initiate steps to make Pakistan internally stable.
Keyswords: Anti-Americanism, Intervention, Good Governance, 9/11 Incident
Pages: 11-17
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-II)02
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Baluchistan after 18th Amendment: A Critical Analysis

  1. Syed Faisal Iqbal
  2. Dr. Ghulam Mustafa
  3. Muhammad Arslan
Abstract: Federalism partially implemented in Pakistan due to unitary based regimes and their persistent denial to provincial autonomy. Inter wings parity and unitary ruling set-up under the constitution of 1956 and 1962 just raised socio-economic concerns of provinces and made them more conscious about provincial autonomy. The constitution of 1973 was although federal in nature yet it did not address issue of provincial autonomy until the 18th amendment in 2010. The 18th amendment not only addressed issue of provincial autonomy but also favoured Baluchistan through allocation of resources and three newly added fundamental rights. Baluchistan was problematic area since inception of Pakistan and had faced five major military operations as in 1948, 1958, 1963, 1973 and 2005. Political, social and economic miseries of Baluchistan sustained even after the long awaited constitutional development. The situation realised the need to evaluate implementation of the 18th amendment in socio-economic aspects which is key performance indicator of the 18th amendment. The research also developed theoretical approach as per socio-economic needs of people of Baluchistan. The 18th amendment although addressed the concerns of people of Baluchistan yet there is a subtle distinction between to address and resolve the concern and the research abridged the gap.
Keyswords: Baluchistan, Pakistan, Provincial Autonomy, Socio-economic Challenges, The 18th Amendment, Unitary Ruling Set-Up
Pages: 18-33
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-II)03
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Military and Islamization in Pakistan from 1971 to 1999

  1. Dr. Muhammad Afzal Sajid
  2. Dr. Javed Iqbal
Abstract: This article covers the use of Islam as a means of identification and as an integral part of the Pakistan Army Officer Corps' ideology between 1971 and 1999. Many officers have found their identity in the Army's interpretations of Islam. This article also vies that the Army has continually combined concepts of the disgraced 'Martial Race' theory and Islam as the foundation of the Army's superiority over other forces, most especially the Indian Army, since its historical context the British Indian Army remained indulge in political, religious and cultural activities and being the successor of British Indian Army, the Pakistan’s Army did continue the practice. Beyond all else, the Military's devastating loss to India in 1971 influenced the formation of an Army culture centered on Islam. Islam was also divulged to have a long history of association with and conflation with concepts such as martial race and Muslim triumphalism, as well as warfighting enthusiasm, unit, and equipment designations.
Keyswords: Army, Iman, Islamization, Pakistan, Religion, Taqwa, and Jihad-fi-sabeel-illah
Pages: 34-45
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-II)04
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Integration of Task-based Language Teaching and Grammar Translation Method to Teach Conditional Sentences

  1. Muhammad Amjad
  2. Ayesha Ghulam Ghous
  3. Dr. Adnan Tahir
Abstract: Learning English language for academic purposes is one of the important fields in every corner of the world, and the students face many difficulties in different learning areas, so the researchers and ELT experts from different disciplines innovate varieties of teaching methods and integrated teaching techniques to share their experimental and lifelong experiences. One of the difficult learning areas for the EFL and ESL learners is to construct conditional sentences. The students make many mistakes in conditional sentence structures because of many reasons including their L1 interference. This action research was conducted to explore the effectiveness of TBLT and GTM integrated teaching techniques to teach conditional sentences to the students of intermediate level and fill the research gaps in this specific area. A pre-test, a post-test and a learners’ feedback questionnaire were designed to collect data for this study and the data analysis was done in mixed mode. The participants’ recorded responses confirmed the effectiveness of the integration of these two prominent teaching methods to improve learners’ understanding and performance in constructing different kinds of conditional sentences.
Keyswords: Conditional Sentences, GTM, TBLT
Pages: 46-58
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-II)05
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