ISSN(Print): 2790-6795 | ISSN(Online) : 2790-6809 | ISSN-L : 2790-6795

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 1

Integrating Task Based Language Teaching with Grammar Translation Method in Pakistani ESL Class

  1. Afzal Ul Haque
  2. Rashid Mahmood
  3. Arslan Tahir
Abstract: There is no doubt in saying that the Grammar Translation Method for teaching a foreign language, especially English has grown too old and outdated in this rapidly changing world. But if we look at the Pakistani context the situation is somewhat different. Pakistan is among those states where the Grammar Translation Method is being practiced, at large, in public schools. To teach English as a foreign language. There are countless factors/reasons behind this cult in Pakistan due to which it has become a great challenge for the Pakistani replace this old fashioned method with advanced teaching methodologies. This challenge exists not only at the government level but also for educationists and linguists who are working in this area. This research is conducted to evaluate the combination of the Traditional Method and TBLT in teaching English as a foreign language at schools working under government administration in Pakistan. The students of the 9th class studying at govt. schools in Okara, Punjab, were selected as population. The test was developed as a chief instrument to get data from the targeted population. The students’ feedback questionnaire and observation checklist were other tools developed by the researchers to obtain necessary data. To acquire data from the selected population Pre-treatment assessment tests and post-treatment assessment tests were held. The researchers made use of tables, charts and graphs for data analysis. For data analysis statistical software “SPSS” was employed and for verification and interpretation T-test was applied. The results of current research work pointed out the success ratio of integration of Grammar Translation Method and Task Based Language Teaching for teaching EFL to Pakistani students studying in 9th class. The findings of current research would be beneficial for students, teachers, educational managers and policymakers. They can design teaching strategies, methodologies and policies for effective and result oriented EFL teaching at public schools in Pakistan.
Keyswords: ESL, GTM, Integrated Methods, Language Teaching, TBLT
Pages: 01-23
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-I)01
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article Creative Commons License

Internal Migration and its Consequences on Migrant Families: A Case of Study the Punjab, Pakistan

  1. Saima Safdar
  2. Miss Rizwana
  3. Dr. Muqaddas Javed
Abstract: The trends of rural to urban or urban to urban migration, is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries like Pakistan and have significant effects on both sending and receiving communities, and on the lives of migrant families. The target population of this study was the migrated families in Lahore city, from rural or other areas of the country. To draw the sample from target population a multistage simple random sampling was applied. A community based survey method was used for collection of primary information through structured questionnaire. The data was collected from migrated families and total 448 respondents were interviewed. Majority of the area in the country does not possess the basics as improved health facility, education institutes especially for females, better economic opportunities for livelihood and so many among others. Due to these unrest conditions most of the people migrate from their homeland to Lahore city in the hope of better livings. This migration brings positive as well as negative consequences on the host communities and the migrated lives also. Socio-cultural ties, kinship relations, community geographical and demographic situation, family type and process, occupational status among others have entirely changed because of this movement in the country.
Keyswords: Global Phenomenon, Internal Migration, Migrated Families
Pages: 24-36
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-I)02
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article Creative Commons License

Cyber Warfare as tool of Propaganda and its Challenges

  1. Zainab Murtaza
  2. Dr. Ali Shan Shah
  3. Ghulam Qasim
Abstract: The aim of study is to examine the implications of Cyber Warfare as propaganda tool and how it impacts the national security of Pakistan. In this Modern world, every nation is facing financial difficulties and Cyber security threats. The internet has become integral part of life. After the end of Cold War, professionals started to analyze that the main subject of global security changed the conflict’s nature. In cyber space, the threats are increasing like cyber frauds, stealing data, criminal activities and vulnerabilities. This new era of technology in shape of cyber weapon as propaganda tool is creating threat to national and regional security. It has become principle issue of international strategy. The cyber warfare is threat to state’s integrity and security. It is threatening corporate, government and private sectors. Many countries started to invest in cyber security to protect their interest as for propagation. In the era of hybrid warfare, the cyber warfare also possess severe hazard to Pakistan’s national security. The aim of studies to explore the awareness regarding cyber threats towards Pakistan and which type of measures should be taken by cyber department of Pakistan. The study on cyber warfare and its challenges is based on descriptive and analytical design by using qualitative techniques.
Keyswords: Cyber Warfare, NR3C, Pakistan Cyber Army (PCA), Pakistani Advanced Persistent Threats, Propaganda
Pages: 37-45
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-I)03
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article Creative Commons License

Estimating and Forecasting the Growth Model by Automatrics Technique: A Cross Country Analysis

  1. Benish Rashid
  2. Nasir Mahmood
  3. Dr. Shahid Razzaque
Abstract: There are lot of theories and plethora of model which can be applied for theories, but selection of most appropriate model is great job. Where the theory and empirical model support each other. The selection of a potential variable is issues of great concern and has very long history but still it is main issue. The reason is that the model is a simplification of reality, and the reality is very complex, due to simultaneously dynamic, non-synchronous, and high-dimensional. Six growth models have been used for analyzing the main determinants of economic growth in case of cross countries analysis, therefore by using these six models we have tested all the potential variables through modern shrinkage procedure automatrics Data from 1980 to 2020 were used to analyzed the cross country growth factors so therefore, the current study looked at about 43 countries with modelling these different comparative studies based on growth modelling. So, we can make these six individual models and we can estimate the General Unrestricted. By evaluating the data and using the modern econometrics technique automatrics, different sets of economic variables has been used to evaluate which sets of the economic variables are important to boost up the growth level of the country.
Keyswords: Automatrics, Cross Country, Economic Growth, Forecast
Pages: 46-56
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-I)04
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article Creative Commons License

Linguistic Features of Renaissance and Romantic Poetry: A Stylistic Comparison of Shakespeare and Wordsworth's Sonnets

  1. Imran Nazeer
  2. Muhammad Riaz Gohar
  3. Dr. Sajid Waqar
Abstract: The main objective of the study is to search out the linguistic features of Renaissance and Romantic Poetry. The researcher tried out to differentiate the different figurative devices used by William Wordsworth and William Shakespeare in their sonnets. Two sonnets “Sonnet-18 and Daffodils” were selected as the sample. To find out the linguistic features the researcher followed the guidelines given by Geoffrey Leech in his book “A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry”. To carry out this particular study the descriptive method was used. It was concluded that different figurative/stylistic devices “Alliteration, Anaphora, Assonance, Consonance, Hyperbole, Imagery, Metre, Simile and Symbols were used by the poets in their poems. Some of them are used in both poems and some represent just one period. The study recommends that the teachers and the students should know the style of different writings and they should also be aware of the different figurative and stylistic devices uses in the poetry to get a better understanding. In this way, they can go through the abstract meaning of the writing and they can read them more easily.
Keyswords: English Sonnets, Linguistic Features, Renaissance, Romantic Poetry, Shakespeare, Stylistic Comparison, Wordsworth
Pages: 57-65
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.35484/ahss.2021(2-I)05
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article Creative Commons License